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煮茶聊詩
討論板名:煮茶聊詩 http://chiushui.org


文章標題:一九五五年的那個老人        謝輝煌的IP位置:163.20.3.11
                  
〈老人〉,是詩人雪飛《滑鼠之歌》的中的一首早期作品,成於一九五五年十月,具有「那個時代」的意義,可供懷古。詩共三節十九行,行數採六、六、七分配,具有形式上的均衡之美。詩中沒有中式或西式的傳統刻板的腳韻,但讀起來很是
順口。主要是語言的平實、自然,詩中的景物,共通性很強,永遠不會變成陌生的東西,其生命力是可以想見的。詩如下:
夜深了
天上的星已在雲中躲蔵
小河上,躺著疲困的長橋
橋頭披著寂寞的燈光
橋下的流水,緩緩流過
帶走長橋的希望

一個老人,白髮蒼蒼
眼中透出沉默的光
在橋上徘徊,在燈光裡尋找
尋找童年的記憶
尋找少年的歡樂
尋找青年的戀情……

夜深了
天上的星已在雲中躲藏
小河上,躺著疲困的長橋
老人在橋上尋找
孤獨的影子披著寂寞的光
橋下的流水,緩緩流過
帶走老人的希望
                 ~1955年10月23日斗六
讀完詩,就知道這是一首以「流光帶走了老人的希望」為旨意的小詩,沒有強烈的感歎,也沒有任何企盼,然一種淡淡的的愁怨卻繫上了心頭。所以,在字面上不必做任何的解釋,便能一讀就懂,而且能「懂」進老人淒酸而茫茫的蒼老心境裡,令人味之再三。
以「老人」為主題的作品,不僅在詩歌中常見,而且還常見於繪畫、攝影和雕塑的精品中。然因作者心境及愛好的不同,作品中便常呈現百種千樣的老人神態。而在眾多的神態呈現中,有的只是老人身軀的局部或全部,有的則配上了風景,像這首〈老人〉。
此詩第一節,由「夜、星、雲、小河、長橋、橋頭、燈光、流水、希望」等虛實景象,加上「躲藏、躺著、披著、流過、帶走」等動作,以及「深了、疲困、寂寞」等情語(也是形容詞),組成了六個彼此關聯或不關聯的意象,並密聚在一起,形成一幅具有明暗色彩、冷熱溫度、動靜神態、高低姿勢、遠近距離、長短線條、及上下空間等對比藝術的冷清畫面,不須增添任何景物,也絕對是一幅色澤及層次豐富的藝術作品。
第二節詩,詩人採用相同的手法,雕出老人的外貌及內心世界,並使其與前節中的「疲困的長橋」,和「寂寞的燈光」相結合,且一連用四個「尋找」作頂真格的修辭,凸顯老人尋找的深度與廣度(詩中的「……」為其深廣度背了書)。這節詩,顏色、線條比較單純,但在精神層面的表現上,卻是深邃而深沉,複雜而緊張的。如果將這節單獨提領出來,也不失為一首「可愛的小詩」。
上面兩個局部場景,詩人因移情作用而賦予人格化,且主觀地注入「疲困、寂寞、沉默、希望」等情緒,而生成了兩個可以各自單獨存在的意境,或稱之為「局部意境」。
這兩個「局部意境」,到了第三節詩中,便被詩人取精用宏地做了一次整合工作。詩人幾乎全用重複的句子,運用暗房中放大、縮小及疊置等技巧,製作成一幅有人有物的新畫。只是,原來在第一節中的各自為獨立的主角景物,此時都成它a轉化為配角佈景了。而在這幅整合後的大意境中,「老人」成了統攝全局的靈魂。「深了」的夜,「疲困」的長橋,和「寂寞」的燈光,則成了「孤獨」氛圍的營造者。這些角色、關係的變化,增加了作品的起伏跌宕之美。而意象的重複與重疊,則不僅加深了橋和老人的「寂寞」和「疲困」的濃度,且拉大、加長了老人「徘徊」和「尋找」的時間與空間,使「流水帶走老人的希望」的陰影,延伸到無限遠和無窮大,具有使人印象深刻的幼纂C
所以,從詩的立意取向、意境營造及製作技巧來欣賞此詩,確實是一首小而美的作品。
若問詩人在年輕的時候(只二十八歲,請參看封面裡的「詩人小傳」),為何要寫一個被「流水帶走了希望」的老人?唯一的答案是,詩人內心一定有一個很大的「失望」乃至「絕望」的意識,逼得他一吐為快。而這種意識的醞釀與形成,關係到「小我」或「大我」理想的幻滅。李辰冬先生在《文學與生活.意識與天才》一文中,給「意識」下的定義是:「理想透過實踐後所激出的情感。」另在同書《意識與靈感》一文中說:「有意識就有靈感。」因此,可以武斷地說,詩人在創作這首〈老人〉時的靈感,是來自某種理想在實踐(追求)過程中遭到毀滅性的摧折後所激發出的情感(意識)。然究竟是小我的事業、愛情方面的挫敗?還是大我的「反攻」志業的挫敗?詩的文本部分「守口如瓶」。唯一能算算卦的,只有詩的寫作時間-一九五五年十月。
那時,詩人二十八歲,是官是兵,暫且不管,總還有個「打了勝仗回家鄉」的希望。
那時,他雖未滿二十八足歲,也快到了可以堂而皇之申請結婚,獲配眷糧眷補的資格了。所以,這個理想應該沒有幻滅才對。
但是,「大我」的問題卻很傷感了。因為,那時已距喊出「一年準備,兩年反攻,三年掃蕩,五年成央v口號的一九五O年三、四月間(?)
足足有五年半了,而反攻的號角猶未睡醒,而部隊久訓兵疲。兼以當年春天一江山失守,繼而棄守大陳、南麑,加深了台灣金馬孤懸海隅的劣勢。接著,聯合國討論「台灣海峽停火」及「兩個中國」的議題,雖無結論,但急得蔣公也出來公開反對了。而唯一有力的盟友不助我反攻大陸的態勢已明。似此,還有「反攻大陸回家鄉」的「希望」嗎?但這種主題,當時碰都不能碰。詩人唯一能突破的,只有「技術犯規」,利用象徵手法,以「流水」喻「流光」;「長橋」喻「反攻跳板」;「燈光」喻「希望」(?),卻是那麼「孤獨」;「老人」喻「軍隊」(或軍中的老幹部),卻是「白髮蒼蒼」了,使人想起辛棄疾的「將軍白髮征夫瓷v。上面的猜想,也閉O牽強附會吧?不過,當時這種意識卻是普遍存在軍中。如另一位資深詩人邱平,於一九五四年十月,寫過一首〈靜靜的十月〉中有「時間正在作冷冷的嘲笑/靜靜的十月/秋風總沒有消息」等句。「嘲笑」什麼?當然是嘲笑「五年成央v的誓言。而「十月」,在那個年代,是旗海的月,薄海歡騰的月,然在邱平筆下,卻是「靜靜的」,太「超以象外」了,可是一想到「反攻號角」,不就又「得其環中」了?又,「秋」是收穫的季節,而「秋風總沒有消息」,豈不時顛序倒,收成無望?所以,這類的意識,決非空穴來風。
時下,對於意識表達的方法,有的已「進步」到「玄之又玄」的地步,讀起來就像讀道士的符。有人說,新時代要用新的事物來加工成意象。這種觀念是進步的,只是新事物的生命週期太短,很多人還沒看清楚它們的面貌,它們便自地球上消失了,像磁石式的電話機,便是一例。不過,「搖個電話給他」,是否要改成「按個電話給他」呢?而「哈日」、「哈貓」,後年還有嗎?「冷冷清清」,是否要改寫成「酷酷清清」?所以,取之為象的物,生命力越長的越好。如這首詩中的「夜、橋、燈、河……」等等。也可以說,三百年後的人讀了此詩,依然可感受到詩中那份愁情。
難得時來運轉,能讀到從「冷宮」裡走出來的雋永小品,對很多幾乎無詩可讀的讀者來說,應是個遲來的「喜訊」吧?(89.6.5.)
作者: 謝輝煌   時間:2001-11-16 00:00:00  來源:163.20.3.11

〔秋水討論板 V2.0〕〔PHP+CodeIgniter版本作者:小p〕〔〕〔網站〕〔原作者:Yuzi工作室
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