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煮茶聊詩
討論板名:煮茶聊詩 http://chiushui.org


文章標題:詩的深入與淺出        雪 飛的IP位置:163.20.3.11

詩的創作,不外內容與表現兩大問題。就內容而言,有屬於個人者,有屬於社會國家者,有屬於自然宇宙者,可說無所不包。就表現言,則每首詩各有不同的手法與技巧;有易懂者,有難解者,可說種類繁多。不過,若從詩人本身的角度來看,則內容不出詩人的意識和情感,表現不外以能感人、動人,廣為流傳最理想。例如同樣寫《清明》,杜牧所寫的是:
清明時節雨紛紛,路上行人欲斷魂
借問酒家何處有,牧童遙指杏花村
而黃庭堅所寫的則是:
佳節清明桃李笑,野田荒塚只生愁;
雷驚天地龍蛇蟄,雨足郊原草木柔。
人乞祭餘驕妾婦,士甘焚死不公侯;
賢愚千載知誰是,滿眼蓬蒿共一坵。
面對同樣的清明節,但在杜牧和黃庭堅的意識感情裡,顯然各有不同。雖觸同樣之景,卻生不同之情,故所涉及的內容亦大不相同。前者面對「路上行人欲斷魂」的悲情之景,就生「借問酒家何處有」的欲借酒消愁之情。後者則是另一種,由頭兩句的一喜一悲之對照,進一步也涉及「雷驚天地龍蛇蟄,雨足郊原草木柔」的背景變化。同時面對「野田荒塚」,又使詩人想到:無論是賢是愚,死後皆黃土一堆。以致想到古齊人與晉國介之推的故事,而有「賢愚千載知誰是,滿眼蓬蒿共一坵」之嘆。若再將兩者加以比較,顯然在內容上,後者比前者更「深入」。而在表現上,則前者比後者較「淺出」。正因其較「淺出」,更大眾化,故較易廣為流傳。
所以我認為:一首最理想的詩,應該是「既有深入的內容,也有淺出的表現」。試舉幾首大家都熟悉的短詩:
春眠不覺曉,處處聞啼鳥;
夜來風雨聲,花落知多少?
            ~孟浩然:春曉
此詩雖只有短短四句,且非常淺白易懂,但在內容上,卻能深入地把握了春天的種種特性,寫活了春天的晨景,也充分表現出詩人的意識與情感,故堪稱是一首深入淺出的好詩。
打起黃鶯兒,莫教枝上啼;
啼時驚妾夢,不得到遼西。
            ~金昌緒:春怨
此詩看起來很平常,只不過在描寫一位深閨怨婦的小動作。但其內容的展現,則是以後的兩句的心理深入分析,來賦予第一句的優美動作之含義。而其詞句口語化,押韻中具有音樂之美,真是一首淺由深出的好詩。
慈母手中線,遊子身上衣;
臨行密宓縫,意恐遲遲歸。
誰言寸草心,報得三春暉?
            ~孟郊:遊子吟
此詩在表現上,不僅淺出如家常話,使人易懂又有熟悉感,且其內容以三春日光,來形容慈母的愛子之情,絕非兒子的「寸草心」,所能報答於萬一,更深具哲理。
山外青山樓外樓,西湖歌舞幾時休;
暖風薰得游人醉,直把杭州作汴州。
            ~林洪:西湖
從此詩內容看來,似乎在描寫西湖歌舞昇平的景象,其實「直把杭州作汴州」一句,指出南宋君臣,「只圖偷安晏樂於西湖」,而忘了汴州舊都,祖宗的大仇。可見其內容,是非常深入的。且在詞句運用上,又並無難懂之處。所以這首詩,仍是深入淺出之作。
此外,在西洋詩中,亦常有深入淺出者。例如美國詩人桑德堡(C.Sandburg,1878-1967)所作的《霧》:
霧來了
踏著小貓的腳步

它坐在那兒俯瞰
海港和城市
靜靜地蹲著
然後向前遊動
這首詩雖然很短,且是非常淺出的一種表現,但評論家卻認為是作者「纖巧詩中的精品」。因為以「小貓的腳步」來形容霧的「悄然無聲」之動感,是「以動顯靜」。「最後一句『遊動』進一步顯示著動中的靜謐,彷彿一切都沉浸在夢中,沒有一絲喧鬧」(註一)。如此寫法,相信是作者對霧和貓的觀察,深入瞭解它們的共同特性所得,因此不失為一首深入淺出之作。又如德國詩人艾興多夫(Joseph von Eichendorff,1788-1857)所寫的《月夜》:
青天好像靜靜地,
吻過大地,
她現在花容燦爛,
夢沉沉地懷思。
微風吹過原野,
麥穗溫柔地波動,
森林輕輕地低語,
明星佈滿了夜空。

我的心靈廣闊地,
舒展開它的羽翼,
飛過靜靜的原野,
彷彿向家園飛馳。
評論家認為,這首詩「是德國浪漫主義詩歌的範作」,為釵h音樂家所喜愛,其「譜曲就有四十一種」之多。尤其最後一句,以「家園」象徵「理想」,「表現了詩人對完美世界的憧憬。它結構獨特,想像豐富」(註二)。其內容不但深入,且具美的意象和意境。其表現不僅淺出易懂,更能給人以美感經驗。
所以,詩的創作,勿論古今中外,能有「深入的內容」,兼具「淺出的表現」,即為好詩,更有可能登上名詩之榜。而所謂「深入」,不僅指作者的意識要深入,情感要深入,且對所要運用的題材,更應經過深入研究,適當取捨。至於「淺出」,則是一種藝術手法,也是一種文字符號的運用技巧。能在淺白的詞句中,表現出深入的內容,以引起讀者的「情趣」,更是詩的「大眾化」所不可少者。總之,深入之目的,在使一首詩的內涵豐富。淺出之理想,在使一首詩能廣為讀者所接受,凡能流傳千古之佳作,莫不具有深入的內容,淺出的表現。

                          
附註:
註一:世界詩歌鑑賞大典,桑德堡所寫《霧》(申奧譯,劉晨鋒註)。
註二:同前,艾興多夫所寫《月夜》。(錢春綺譯,溫仁百註)。

作者: 雪 飛   時間:2001-11-16 00:00:00  來源:163.20.3.11

〔秋水討論板 V2.0〕〔PHP+CodeIgniter版本作者:小p〕〔〕〔網站〕〔原作者:Yuzi工作室
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